Fake News, Misinformation & Disinformation

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Suzanne Johnson-Varney
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Types of Disinformation and Misinformation

Types of Misinformation and Disinformation

  • Fabricated content: completely false content;
  • Manipulated content: distortion of genuine information or imagery, for example a headline that is made more sensationalist, often popularised by ‘clickbait’;
  • Imposter content: impersonation of genuine sources, for example by using the branding of an established news agency;
  • Misleading content: misleading use of information, for example by presenting comment as fact;
  • False context of connection: factually accurate content that is shared with false contextual information, for example when a headline of an article does not reflect the content;
  • Satire and parody: presenting humorous but false stores as if they are true. Although not usually categorised as fake news, this may unintentionally fool readers.

House of Commons Select Committee on Culture, Media, and Sport. (2018, July 29). Disinformation and 'fake news': Interim Report. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmcumeds/363/36304.htm#_idTextAnchor002


Examples of Satire

Two of the more well-known satirical brands are the Onion and The Daily Show. The Onion is a mostly text-based (articles) website and The Daily Show airs on Comedy Central and also posts shows and clips online. Here are few examples of their work.

The Onion

Trump Confident U.S. Military Strike On Syria Wiped Out Russian Scandal

GOP Makes Good On 2009 Promise To Block President’s Healthcare Bill

Trump Unveils Sprawling New Presidential Retreat Where He Can Escape From Stresses Of Mar-A-Lago


The Daily Show with Trevor Noah

Sean Spicer: Kindergarten Press Secretary. https://youtu.be/3RCcrt56tO0